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Cao Bang is a province of the Nort-East Vietnam. It is adjacent to Tuyen Quang and Ha Giang provinces in the West, Bac Kan and Lang Son provinces in the South, GuangXi province of the People’s Republic of China in the North and North-East with the 333.403km long border. The provincial city is also named Cao Bang.
Area: 6,707.9 sq.km
Population: 515,000 people consisting of 41% of Tay ethnic, 31.1% of Nung, 10.1% of Hmong, 10.1% of Yaos, 5.8% of Viet, 1.4% of San Chay ...and 11 other ethnics having over 50 persons.
Topography: Cao Bang features limestone highland mixed with soil mountain and having an average height of more than 200m and up to 600-1,300m above sea level. 90% of the province’s area are moutains and forests.
Rivers: Cao Bang has two major rivers: Gam river in the West and Bang river in the center and the East and some other rivers such as Quay Son, Bac Vong, Nho Que, Nang, Neo, Hien...
Administrative divisions: There are 13 units: 1 city (Cao Bang) and 12 districts.
Climate: Cao Bang has temperate climate. There are 4 seasons: spring, summer, autumn, winter. The average temperature is 25 - 280C in summer and 16 -170C in winter. Snow sometimes falls in winter on high mountains such as Trung Khanh, Tra Linh.
Nung women with forging products of Phuc Sen village - Cao Bang
Sights of interest
As the province is in the region where Vietnamese people lived thousands of years ago before their southwards expansion, Cao Bằng has several points of historical interest as well as many natural features.
Ban Gioc waterfall, on Vietnam side, is around 92km North of Cao Bang city. The waterfall is one of the most beautiful ones of the country, featuring three falls separated by trees and rocks.
It becomes particularly impressive in rainy season from May to September with strong flow of more than 30 metres and sound of falling water can be heard from afar. The waterfall also boasts gorgeous backdrop with lush vegetation and colorful flowers. It makes a perfect landscape painting created by nature.
Nguom Ngao Cave, located in Gun Village, Dam Thuy Commune, Trung Khanh District, just 3km from Ban Gioc Waterfall, is considered as one of the most beautiful caves in northeast of Vietnam.
It is discovered in 1921 by local people then opened for tourists since 1996. With the length of 2,144m, Nguom Ngao cave is relative enormous, includes three main entrances. Inside the cave, wonderful stalactites hang down from high stone cliffs, some stone statues look like human bodies, some other look like forest plant, animals, a fairy combing her hair or a lotus bulb...
With its natural beauty, Nguom Ngao cave has been awarded “National landscape” by the Ministry of Culture and Information.
From 2006, there are asphalted road from Highway 206 to Nguom Ngao site and cement ways spreading inside cave combined with light systems, facilitating the access to the cave.
Thang Hen lake, 25km from the provincial town, is a freshwater lake among the 36 lakes in the mountain of Tra Linh district.
It is 3,000m long and nearly 1,000m large surrounded by forests and rocky mounts. The head source of the lake is a large cave where water flows out continuosly, making the scenery more splendid. The lake has high tide and low tide every day and the lake water is all-year-round clear, in dry season as well as in flooding season.
It is said that, long time ago, a young man passed brilliantly his exam and promoted to be a mandarin. He was awarded with 7 days off to pay his tribute to the ancestors in the home village. There, he got married to a beautiful girl. So deep in love and happiness with his newly-wed wife that he forgot the day to return to royal capital. On the 7th night, he remembered his duty and in a hurry say goodbye to his parents and wife and ran as fast as he could to the capital. Too hungry and too tired to continue his trip, he became exhausted after passing 36 rocky valleys becoming now 36 lakes, he died on the place which is now Thang Hen lake.
Pac Bo Cave, located in Trung Hoa Commune, Ha Quang District, Cao Bang Province, 350km north of Hanoi, is known nationwide as a revolutionary resistance base.
The main historical relics in this area consist of Pac Bo, Coc Bo, Lenin Stream, Karl Marx Mountain and Khuoi Nam:
+  Coc Bo Cave where President Ho Chi Minh established his residence and worked on Vietnam’s revolutionary course after returning from 30 years abroad.
+ Walking on the rocks along the side of the stream, there is a wooden bridge over Coc Bo rivulet where Lenin Stream starts. By the side of a rugged rocky mountain is Pac Po Cave. Inside the cave there is a wooden board as a bed for Uncle Ho.
+ About 1km from the entrance of Pac Bo Cave, there is a small shack by the side of Khuoi Nam Mountain where Uncle Ho held the eighth Party Central Committee meeting. Adjacent to the shack is milestone 108 marking the Vietnam-China border.
Visiting this historical area, visitors will learn more about the great life of President Ho Chi Minh which is part- reflected through his optimistic revolutionary verses.
Kim Dong vestiges area
Kim Dong vestiges are associated with Kim Dong (1929-1943), a teenager of the Nung ethnic minority who sacrified his life for his country. He bravely sacrificed while on duty to protect comraders and help Viet Minh offices to escape from enemies.
The vestiges area includes:
+ Don Chuong junction, 8 kilometres before arriving at Pac Bo, site of a French military post past which Kim Dong carried letters back and forwards to Viet Minh cadres in the Pac Bo region.
+ The floor of the house of Ly Van Kinh, 2 km from Don Chuong Junction, where local meetings of the Indochina Communist Party were held during the early 1940s.
+ Thinh Ngieng Rock on the opposite side of the road, from which Kim Dong used to observe the activities of enemy troops passing through the area.
+ Kim Dong Tomb and Memorial which is also a place for Youth meeting over the country.
Tran Hung Dao forest vestige belongs to Tam Kim commune, Nguyen Binh district, 50km South-West of Cao Bang city. On 22/12/1944, under the command of General Vo Nguyen Giap, here, The Vietnam Armed Propaganda Brigade for the Liberation was established, forerunner of today Vietnam People’s Army.
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